Organizations Using the Internet
Intro Page Cybersecurity Home Page
Jammu and Kashmir,
and militant groups based in or supported
Modified 24 April 2009
It seems impossible to separate these into separate pages, as many so-called "Indian separatist groups" are really Pakistani-based jihadists, and it is impossible to consider either India or Pakistan in isolation without also considering Kashmir.
India — The Indian Union is administratively one extremely large nation, but ethnically it is a collection of many diverse nationalities. It is the result of British imperialism (certainly a fair word, as it was one of the "jewels in the crown" of the British empire). It brought (forced?) together several disparate and historically separate ethnic nations into one political state. Many of these ethnic nationalities have factions desiring independance. There are many legitimate secessionist or autonomy movements.
However, many sites claiming to be maintained by Indian secessionist movements are actually designed by supporters of the terrorist group Lashkar-e-Taiba or allied Pakistan-based organizations (see the Pakistan section below for more).
Many of the sites list below seem to be mostly pro-Pakistan and anti-India, instead of being pro-nationality or pro-autonomy. As with anything else on the net, the reader must remember that these are controversial issues and subject to misleading information. If anyone can offer further information about which sites are really backed by Lashkar-e-Taiba, or knows of sites giving the opposing points of view for any of the issues involved, please let me know! The Pakistan-based anti-Indian viewpoint seems to be disproportionally represented on the net.
- Bharat Rakshak (The Consortium of Indian Military Websites) — Looks very good, although apparently not official — http://www.bharat-rakshak.com
- Indian Armed Forces — http://armedforces.nic.in/
- Ministry of Defence — http://mod.nic.in/
- Bharatvani Institute — A good overview of the Indian point of view, capturing the India/Pakistan, Hindu/Muslim, and Modern / Conservative dichotomies — http://www.voi.org
- Hindutva — http://www.hindutva.org
- India Think Tank — A non-profit organization promoting policies in favor of India — http://www.indiathinktank.net/
- Indo-Pak Links — This looks to be a broad collection — http://www.grandpoohbah.net/indo-pak.htm
- Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) — An organization studying and researching problems of Indian national security: http://www.idsa-india.org
- Secular India — Quite a bit of political analysis — http://www.secularindia.com
- South Asia Terrorism Portal — Concentrates on the terrorism, low intensity warfare and sectarian strife in South Asia — run by the Institute of Conflict Management — http://www.icm-satp.com/
- South Asian Analysis Group (SAAG) — Strategic analysis on Indian and international security — http://www.saag.org
Andhra Pradesh —
- Naxalites (People's War Group) — Maoist movement influential in parts of Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states.
- United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) — The militant wing of Assamese secessionism. With several bases in Bhutan and in Assam, it battles the Indian Army. Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- Assam Watch — Documenting the violation of human rights in Assam which led to the secessionist uprising. http://freespace.virgin.net/assam.watch/
- Bodoland — Some information on the Bodoland movement: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/mar/indbodo.htm
There is some misinformation out there, a collection of writings
being misattributed to Babasaheb Ambedkar regarding Dalitstan
(see the list of apparent fake sites below).
- The real Babasaheb Ambedkar web site: http://ambedkar.org/
- Revolutionary People's Front Manipur — Manipuri militants engaged in violent secessionist war against the Indian Army. Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- Manipur People's Liberation Front — Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- PrePak (People's Liberation Party of Kangleipak) — Another militant Manipuri secessionist outfit. Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- Mizoram National Front — Some info on the Mizo secessionist movement: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/mar/indmizo.htm
Mughalstan — More than any other internal conflict, this
seems to mostly be a manifestation of the India-vs-Pakistan tension.
Many of sites are not seeking separatism or autonomy but instead
seeking union with Pakistan or with some larger pan-Islamic movement.
As some e-mail pointed out,
"These Mughlestan sites may be a handiwork of an Islamic
organization who have never reconciled to losing power in India
in mid 17th century and count as real sites but then they do not
represent any secessionist movement real or political inside India.
These same organization may be behind the fake
sites [listed below as 'Pages Thought to be Fake']."
Also see the Pakistan section
and the Jammu and Kashmir section
for some more details.
- Hezb-e-Mughalstan (The Party of Mughalstan) — http://www.dalitstan.org/mughalstan/
- Mughalstan Nation — Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- Jihad-e-Mughalstan — Seeking restoration of the Mughalstan Caliphate, which would include Pakistan, parts of India, Bangladesh, and maybe parts of Nepal: http://www.freeyellow.com/members8/mughalstan/
- Supporters of Shariah — Based in the portion of Mughalstan actually in Pakistan: http://www.ummah.net/sos/ See also the Supporters of Shariah site at http://www.shareeah.com/home.htm
- Mughalstan Research Institute — http://www.freespeech.org/delhi/
- Tamil Tribune — A monthly Tamil secessionist newspaper — Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- This appears to be Tamil Islamists in India who back bin Ladin. Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- Also see the Sri Lanka section.
- Tripura Peoples' Democratic Front (TPDF) — The political wing of the ATTF (All-Tripura Tiger Force) which is battling the Indian Army in Tripura and runs a parallel government. Has been on the net, hosted by Geocities.
- Andhra Pradesh —
Pages Thought to be Fake —
Or at least pro-Pakistani and anti-India,
not purely secessionist movements as the
Before even reading through the material,
notice the extremely similar layout of the main
pages for Gujarat Swarajya Sangh
and the Bengal Liberation Army,
to name just one example.
Also notice the extensive cross-linking between
many of these sites.
It would appear that one organization is
providing much of this.
- Bengal Liberation Army — Organisation struggling for the secession of West Bengal from the Indian Union. http://west_bengal.tripod.com
- Dalitstan Organisation — This is an umbrella organization including what would appear to be many groups with differing, even conflicting, goals and viewpoints. From what I've been told by those far better informed than myself, it would appear that the collection is really pro-Pakistani and anti-Indian. Also note their hosting of the Hezb-e-Mughalstan pages: http://www.dalitstan.org/
- "Ambedkar Library" — Not really:
- Gujarat Swarajya Sangh (Gujarat Independance Movement) — Advocating a homeland for the Gujaratis and Vaishyas of India. http://hometown.aol.com/mahagujarat/
- Maratha Rashtra Parishad — Advocating the restoration of Shivaji's 18th-century Maratha Empire. http://freeweb.digiweb.com/pages/maratha/
- Pan-Islamic Mughalstan — http://muslimsonline.com/mughalstan/
- Oriya Mahasabha — The Oriya secessionist movement. http://oriya.scripterz.org
- Rajputana Liberation Front — Demanding the secession of Rajasthan, the homeland of the Rajputs. http://rajputana.htmlplanet.com
- Free Tamil Nadu — http://www.dalitstan.org/tamil/
Pakistan — The New York Times, 5 July 2002, pg A8, had an excellent overview of Pakistani militant groups:
Anti-Indian militant groups —
originally founded to fight Indian influence
- Lashkar-e-Taiba or Army of the Righteous and Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad (MDI) — To quote the U.S. Dept of State, Lashkar-e-Taiba "is the armed wing of the Pakistan-based religious organization, Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad (MDI) — a Sunni anti-US missionary organization formed in 1989. One of the three largest and best-trained groups fighting in Kashmir against India, it is not connected to a political party. The LT leader is MDI chief, Professor Hafiz Mohammed Saeed. [...] Has several hundred members in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, and in India's southern Kashmir and Doda regions. Almost all LT cadres are foreigners — mostly Pakistanis from seminaries across the country and Afghan veterans of the Afghan wars. [...] Based in Muridke (near Lahore) and Muzaffarabad. The LT trains its militants in mobile training camps across Pakistan-administered Kashmir and Afghanistan. [...] Collects donations from the Pakistani community in the Persian Gulf and United Kingdom, Islamic NGOs, and Pakistani and Kashmiri businessmen." Accused of Dec 2001 attack on Indian Parliament, believed to be linked to Al-Qaeda.
- Harakat ul-Mujahedeen (Movement of Holy Warriors) — also known as Harkat Ansar and Al Faran — believed responsible for hijacking an Air India plane in Dec 1999. Operates primarily in Kashmir, against Indian troops and civilian targets, kidnaps tourists, hijacked an Indian airliner 24 Dec 1999. Politically aligned with radical political party Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman faction (JUI-F). Several thousand armed supporters in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan (especially Muzaffarabad and Rawalpindi), and India's Kashmir and Doda regions. Collects donations from Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. http://www.ummah.net.pk/harkat/
- Jaish-e-Muhammed (Army of Muhammed) — a spinoff of Harkat ul-Mujahedeen, also known as Committee for the Restoration of Pakistani Sovreignity, suspected of kidnapping and murder of journalist Daniel Pearl, accused of Dec 2001 attack on Indian Parliament, possibly linked to Al-Qaeda, reported to have received training in Afghanistan and support from Osama bin Laden.
Sectarian militant groups — fighting other Muslim
- Sipah-e-Sahaba — Extremist Sunni group suspected of killing Shi'ites since late 1990's.
- Lashkar-e-Jhangvi — A more radical offshoot of Sipah-e-Sahaba, accused of car bombing (killing 12) in Karachi May 2002, and bombing at American consulate in June 2002, Al-Qaeda is believed to have funded the consulate bombing.
Al Qanoon —
A terror coalition formed in January 2002:
- Formed by members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Muhammed, Sipah-e-Sahaba, and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi.
- Draws name and inspiration from Ahmed Omar Sheikh, former leader of Jaish-e-Muhammed, arrested in 2002 for murder of Daniel Pearl.
- Members share distorted view of Islam, hatred of the west, and having trained and fought in Afghanistan.
- Jama'at-Ud-Da'awa Pakistan — without reading Urdu I'm not sure exactly what their position is, although the home page mentions Kashmir, Jihad, Fatawa, and MP3 CD's (speeches and exhortations, not music!) — http://jamatdawa.org/
- Narus, a major U.S. corporation, has sold the Pakistan government the equipment it uses to control and monitor telecommunications.
- Also see the page on al-Qaeda and the Taliban, as the Taleban were a Pakistani political party founded and controlled by ISI, Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency.
Jammu and Kashmir — Note that I've just copied the web site titles so this is a little more than a list of URLs — they aren't my labels, I'm just quoting the authors. The majority seem to really be Indian or (more commonly) Pakistani, rather than Kashmiri.
- Jammu-Kashmir Facts — http://www.jammu-kashmir-facts.com/
- Jammu and Kashmir — the Complete Knowledge Base — http://www.jammu-kashmir.com/
- Kashmir: A Paradise turned into Hell by Terrorism — http://www.kashmir-information.com/
- Save Kashmir Movement — http://www.savekashmirmovement.org
- The Truth About Kashmir — an Indian perspective — http://www.armyinkashmir.org/index.html
- Pro-Pakistani, Anti-Indian
- Pakistani Government — http://www.pak.gov.pk/govt/kashmir/kashmir-page.html
- Jihad in Kashmir — http://www.homestead.com/kasheer/jihadvkashmire.html
- Desolation or Peace — http://www.kashmir.demon.co.uk/
- Jammu and Kashmir — The slaughter of democracy — Maintained by Gharib Hanif:
- Jihad-e-Kashmir — mainly in Urdu: http://www.jihad-e-kashmir.org.pk/
- Kashmir Council for Human Rights — Lord Eric Avenbury, Chairman British Parliamentary Human Rights Group, is patron of this organisation: http://www.ummah.net/kashmir/kchr/
- Kashmir Home Page — http://www.alumni.caltech.edu/~mughal/kashmir/kashmir.html
- Kashmir Watch — http://www.kashmirwatch.org/
- PakNews Kashmir Conflict — Regular Updates on the Kashmir Conflict: http://www.paknews.org/kashmir/
- The Rape of Kashmir — Graphic website on the ongoing war over Kashmir: http://www.kasheer.uni.cc/
- Pro-Independance, Anti-Indian, Anti-Pakistani
- I'm uncertain exactly how to categorize these...
- Muttahida Jihad Council — http://www.freeyellow.com/members5/unitedstatesofislam/index.html — undoubtedly on Pakistan's side in any Pakistan-vs-India debate, but taking a much broader view for an Islamic "New World Order".
Intro Page Cybersecurity Home Page